Trail running, the off-road race.
A Trail which means « path » in English, is a pedestrian competition open to all, in a natural environment, with the minimum possible of cemented or asphalted roads (20% maximum). The course can extend for a few kilometers for short distances and go well beyond 80 kilometers for ultra-trails.
Mountain, forest, countryside, desert, this endurance race is practiced on all naturally irregular terrain, including very often a part of altitude difference, which means an elevation gain in altitude between the start and finish line. Therefore, the distance isn’t the only value that is counting! The peculiarity of the terrain but also the relationship between distance and elevation match the difficulty of the race.
This sport, which became popular in the mid-1990s, has been recognized by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) as a track and field sport.
Listening to oneself and one's environment.
Born of the pleasure of running in contact with a preserved nature, trail running is above all a communion with our environment. The runner evolves without artifice, in a demanding environment for the body and the spirit. As a physical and mental challenge, it encourages to explore its capabilities in all humility, in contact with such rough and fragile spaces. Running, listening to his 5 senses, without necessarily focusing on performance but on his ability to manage his physical and mental abilities. Because what drives runners above all else is to finish the race!
Authenticity, humility, fair play, fairness, respect and solidarity make the trail running a discipline with particularly strong values, expressed in the ethical charter of the trail.
7 trail running categories.
Trail races, there is something for everyone! Trail running races are categorized according to their level of difficulty. This ranking is considering the distance and elevation to be covered. It operates based on km-efforts to provide during a race. These km-efforts are calculated by adding the distance (in km) and the hundredth of the positive elevation gain (in m).
There are 7 categories of trail running races, from XXS to XXL races. Each race category corresponds to a number of km-effort and a number of ITRA points. The following criteria make it possible to evaluate the difficulty of a race:
Category - ITRA points - (Km-effort) - Time of first finisher*
XXS - 0 - (0-24) - 1h
XS - 1 - (25-44) - 1h30/2h30
S - 2 - (45-74) - 2h30/5h
M - 3 - (75-114) - 5h/8h
L - 4 - (115-154) - 8h/12h
XL - 5 - (155-209) - 12h/17h
XXL - 6 - (>=210) - >17h
(*) Approximate time of a winner with an ITRA Performance Index of at least 830. Time given as an indication to assess the difficulty of the race category.
Tip #1: Identify a trail
You can consult your local city, municipal, or county parks and recreation department, the forest service, a specialty running store, or the Internet for trails in your area. Look for trail race calendars and select a trail race in your area, visit the website, and download the map. Trail races are excellent courses to consider for runs on your own, plus you may like the course so much that you enter the race.
Tip #2: Think time not mileage
Running three miles on the roads may take you 24 minutes while three miles on trails could take you twice as long depending on the elevation changes and the terrain. It is best to plan your run in terms of time, not distance, so that you don’t head out for a run that is beyond your capabilities.
Tip #3: Keep your eyes on the trail underfoot
Most trail running injuries occur when a runner glances upward for a split second and immediately is on the ground with a sprained ankle, twisted knee, or bruised hand. To enjoy the view…stop running and look around you. Unless you are stopped, or the trail is completely void of rocks, gravel, tree roots, leaves, ice, or cactus, watch where you are going. Know what the terrain is like under your footfalls. Pay attention to the trail.
Tip #4: Dress appropriately
Always be prepared for what the conditions are, or what they might become. If you are heading out for a 20 minute run, chances are the conditions will remain similar to those at the start of the run throughout the run. However, if you are venturing out for a run of more than one hour consider what the conditions might become. You may start in the sunshine only to experience a dramatic change in weather 90 minutes into the run. What was once bright sunshine is now a sky covered in clouds with thunder rolling in the distance. Hopefully you have carried a wind jacket, tights, or a cap to keep you warm for the run back to your start point.
Tip #5: Know the route
Either take a map with you on an unfamiliar route, or run with someone who knows the area (a great idea for your first trail run is to run with someone and get tips about technique). Getting lost is certainly a possibility especially if you are in a new area, on a new trail, or trying a different route you’ve never tried before. If you are by yourself, let someone know where you plan to run, or leave a note in your car at the trail head that describes the route you intend to run. Safety in numbers is something to consider and running with a friend not only gives you company, but also provides support should you get injured on a run.
Tip #6: Consider the terrain
For your first trail run, start out with a relatively flat to rolling course. Don’t attempt to run up a 14,000-foot peak your first time out the door! Gradually add more elevation, more distance, and more challenge to your run. Challenge can come in terms of footing, steepness of the trail (either ascending or descending), or greater altitude. When you are running uphill be sure to use your entire foot as opposed to running on your toes. Roll through the ball of your foot. Toe runners often have screaming calves at the summit of an ascent. On downhill sections avoid using your breaking muscles and slow down in order to save your quadriceps. You can also you a “traversing” technique on very steep downhill sections similar to a novice skier weaving from right to left across the width of the trail.
Tip #7: Think hydration and nutrition
Drink and eat before your run, during your run, and after your run. The amount you eat and drink will vary based on the duration of your run. If you are going out for a run under 90 minutes, a single water bottle may be all you need. However if it is extremely warm, you may need to consider some electrolyte replacement. Anything beyond two hours and you should supplement with some nutrition as well.
Tip #8: Invest in a good pair of trail running shoes
Your seven ounce racing flats may be the perfect shoe for your 5km road race, but won’t be a good choice for the trails. A shoe with good support, stability, gripping potential, and comfort is essential for the trails. There are numerous trail shoes on the market ranging from light and quick (those that are appropriate for short uphill runs), to midweight and reinforced (appropriate for longer runs with more gnarly terrain), to heavy and extremely stable (appropriate for short, rocky, ever-changing terrain). A good all-purpose trail shoe is one that is a good transition shoe, one that will perform well on short sections of road as well as the trails. There are few people who live right next to a trail head so it is helpful to select a shoe based on where you will be doing most of your trail runs. Need help selecting which trail running shoe is right for you?
Enjoy yourself and set achievable goals.
Article originally published July 2010 by Nancy Hobbs – Executive Director – American Trail Running Association.